Cosmati mosaics


Floor mosaics in the main nave of the Lateran Archbasilica in Rome. 

The mosaics is the so called Cosmati style mosaics. Cosmati were a Roman family of artists. They specialised among others in designing and making of mosaics. You will find them in many churches in Rome.

Lateran Archbasilica, although located far beyond Vatican city belongs to the Holy See (the Vatican state.)

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Just a ceiling

Galeria Borghese, Rome, the marvelous interiors.

The view you may admire if you look up entering the great hall of the Villa Borghese Pinciana in Rome.  I will not speculate on its size, but the fresco is for sure more than 100 meter big. 

Frescoes was a very popular technique used to decorate ceilings and walls in Rome, in ancient times as well as during the Renaissance. It was adopted in many other places  and countries usually in churches, palaces and villas belonging to the rich. The technique was also applied in China and India. The true fresco technique involves painting with a water colour on the wet plaster. If the painter did not manage to put colour onto the plaster before it dried up, the plaster had to be removed and put on once again. Frescoes were also painted with a technique called fresco secco, where the painting was applied on a dry plaster. (Secco stands in Italian for dry, fresco – for fresh). The major difference between a true fresco and the fresco secco is its durability. In case of a true fresco during the drying process the colour becomes part of the plastered wall and this way the fresco painting may preserve longer. True frescoes are not suitable as a painting technique for countries where the climate is wet and cold.

The Lateran Archbasilica

The Lateran Archbasilica

Sightseeing in Rome means often visiting a number of churches famous for the architecture and the art pieces displayed inside. In most European cities, no matter Catholic or Protestant one usually visits one main cathedral, sometimes another famous church, and that’s it. In this respect Rome is different. There are around 900 churches here. Sightseeing churches is on a must see list, whether to admire the interiors or an original piece by Bernini or Raphael, or another famous artist. But still there is a problem of visiting numerous churches in a very short period of time, and quickly forgetting what we have seen in which church.

Rome’s churches, at least those most famous ones have some distinctive features, that cannot be seen in other places in Europe. Churches in Rome are usually quite old ones, however many times rebuilt or reconstructed. In Rome it was always customary that building materials were removed form one place to decorate another one. The most prominent example are probably the bronze reliefs that once decorated the ceiling in the Pantheon, but had been melted down, so that the bronze might have been used to make the famous St. Peter’s Basilica altar (by Bernini). The other distinctive feature is that inside the churches we may often find art pieces by famous artists (pictures, frescoes, sculptures, etc.). We have however to bear in mind, that the Catholic Church (popes and bishops) like kings and princes in many other countries hired talented artists to decorate the interiors. Some of the famous artists and their workshops could have shown the world their work and this way got famous because the Church was their sponsor. Further, there is the problem of not knowing at what to look at, the ceiling, the floor, walls or numerous pieces of art. All the details are worked out very precisely. Of specific things for Western European standards are the Byzantine frescoes and mosaics at walls and ceilings, typical for South-Eastern Europe, hard to find in the Western tradition. For different reasons, either invited or because they fled the country, some Byzantine artists worked in Europe since the times of Charlemagne and his heirs. The other feature are marble walls and pillars, as marble formations are spread all over Italy and marble is a natural building element.

Below a small selection of photos from one of the most prominent and oldest (with origins back in IV century) churches in Rome, the Lateran Archbasilica (Archbasilica of St. John Lateran), a church or a cathedral that although located in the city of Rome is an extraterritorial Vatican (Holy See >>>) property. In the past, the basilica and the adjacent palace were the official sit of popes. It lost its splendor as popes moved to Avignon. The present interior is a combination of works that had been conducted mainly in XVI-XVIII centuries. But still in hierarchy of basilicas of Rome, this one is precedent even ahead of the St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican city.


The main nave, with figures of 12 apostles alongside it.


Vestibule, reachly covered with marble. Although its interior was designed centuries later, you easily can get the impression that you visit a palace in ancient Rome. 


A piece of the floor arrangement in the vestibule.


The ceiling of the vestibule.


Bronze doors at the main entrance inside of the vestibule, taken from Curia Iulia building at Forum Romanum. In ancient Rome Curia Iulia hosted the Roman Senate.


The floor mosaics in the main nave in the so called Cosmati style. Cosmati were a Roman family of artists. They specialised among others in designing and making of mosaics. 


The ceiling in the main nave. While in Rome it is always recommendable to look up.


One of 12 statues of the apostles located alongside the main nave. This one by Pierre le Gros is of St. Thomas.


The look downstairs onto the confessio (adjacent in front to the main altar) covered with beutiful marble. Behind the stairs rail, the view onto the tomb of Pope Martin V.  

Confessio is a crypt to which you can get from inside a church taking the stairs down. It is usually linked to corridors and chambers containing tombs.  During our visit in Rome we saw confessios in a number of churches.


The apse located at the very end of the basilica building, behind the altar. Traditionally it has a semi-circular shape, reachly decorated Byzantine style (mosaics at the top with figures shown at the golden background).

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